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File type: Adobe AIR Installation Package

About the .AIR file type

Invalid file associations could be the result of underlying issues within your Windows PC. It is highly recommended to scan your PC for invalid registry entries, unused processes and other slowdown issues.

It  is used by the installation files of the Adobe AIR programs. AIR is actually an acronym for the Adobe Integrated Runtime which is also described as a multi-platform environment used for executing Internet based programs from the user's desktop.
There are some Operating System platforms like the Microsoft Windows Vista which may erroneously handle this file type because it is locked by default in the registry. In these cases, the user has to explicitly define its appropriate file association to be used correctly during system runtime.
It provides support for developers in implementing proven Web-based technologies for building rich Internet programs with the inherent ability of running outside the browser environment regardless of the Operating System platform.
This technology provides users an innovative way of engaging customers without necessarily changing existing infrastructure.

How to open AIR Files

Category: Executable Installation Files
File format: Proprietary
Open with Windows: Adobe AIR
Open with Linux: Adobe AIR
The system behind the AIR extension is the same technology utilized for the creation of cost effective Web-based applications for rapid as well as low risk development and deployment.
Existing Web resources can be used for the development of engaging, branded programs running on majority of desktop Operating Systems.
The implementation of the AIR file provides the user with extensive benefits and enhances the implementation of RIA (Rich Internet Application) strategies.
They are intended to boost productivity, enhance customer satisfaction, lower operating cost, extend market share, increase profitability, and improve retention of customers.
The use of this technology is validated by major businesses such as NASDAQ, AOL, and eBay which have invested significant resources into the development of their systems.
It allows for the establishment of persistent connections, delivery of desktop functionality, leveraging of current resources, and increasing of return on investments for Web-based enterprise.


A file having .ACSM file extension is an Adobe Content Server Message file. Adobe Digital Editions (ADE) uses this format to download and activate Adobe DRM protected content.

Not like standard Ebook Files

It is crucial to know that ACSM files in the regular sense are not standard eBook files. They can't be opened and read the same as the other eBook formats such as PDF

The ACSM file has information communicating with Adobe servers. There is no eBook locked, nor there is anything to extract from the ACSM file the book. 

Download Data

Instead, the ACSM files containing the data can be downloaded as it has the authority that the book is purchased legally. You can download The eBook through the Adobe Digital Editions program. You can use the same software, and it can be read in any of your devices.


How to open an ACSM File

Precisely, once your device is set up properly, you can open the ACSM file so that you register the book to the Adobe Digital Editions configured ID, and then to read the book-running ADE on any device.

You can do this using the same user ID, and there is no need to repurchase it. 

Adobe Digital Editions are employed to open ACSM files on Windows, Android, macOS, and iOS devices. When you download the book on a device, you can download it in any other device with the same user ID.

Use the free version of Adobe Digital Edition.

You can download it from here:

There may be a need to install Norton Security Scan or any other program during the ADE setup.

These programs may necessarily not be related, so you can opt-out, but be careful to watch during the installation for that option.


Use the Help > Authorize Computer menu in Adobe Digital Editions so that you connect to the Adobe Digital Editions, your eBook vendor account.

In this way, you can assure your books are available on other devices as re-downloadable. You can do that even if your device fails. Or if you delete the book. Thus, you don't have to buy the book to read on other devices.

Adobe Content Server Icon

You can read the protected Adobe DRM data through the account on the authorization screen. It also means you can open on other computers and devices the same ACSM file with the same user ID.

You can authorize the computer without ID by checking in the correct box through the Authorize Your Computer screen.


How to Convert an ACSM File to PDF

As the ACSM file is not an eBook, you cannot convert it to another eBook format. The ACSM file is a simple text file describing how to download a real eBook. It may be a PDF, etc.

As there is DRM protection, converting the actual eBook file into a new format is impossible.

Thus, find the file downloaded using Adobe Digital Editions. You can use a file converter program to pdf to open it such that it supports the book format such as

From there, convert as per your needs into a suitable format. So that you use the eBook on the Kindle device.


You can find the ADE downloaded book by right-clicking in Adobe Digital Editions on the book and choosing Show File in Explorer. Mostly, in Windows, it will be as:

C:\Users\[username]\Documents\My Digital Editions\ folder.


AML Format

AML file stands for ACPI Machine Language File. The developer of the file format was The ACPICA Project. And it is highly popular. It belongs to the System Files category and has a Binary format. The file is a system file in the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) Machine Language (AML).

It is also a low-level of language to configure various hardware properties. The file is usually for booting Mac OS X on hardware not related to Apple. Usually called ("Hackintosh" systems). A good example of it is the P55 motherboard. The system file is equally to enable better compatibility with hardware, as well as, to improve the performance of a system.

The AML file contains a Differentiated System Description Table (DSDT). And this is designed to store instructions that help in notifying the Mac OS about several hardware settings. The AML file is better in the root directory when you download and install it on a Mac OS X system. This is to be easy recognize it.

You can check tonymacx86 for series of AML files that are already for Mac OS X. The end-user can also customize and edit the AML file using DSDTSE, the handiwork of EVOSX86 team known for software development. You cannot edit AML files directly. However, you need to first decompile them into ".dsl" files after which you can edit them. And also then compile them back into their original ".aml" files.

AML files are with instructions at the level of ACPI, which is between the operating system and the BIOS.

How to open the AML files

The AML files might have been designed for Mac OS. But you can open them on various operating systems. l.

In Windows

You can use the programs:



You can use the software:

  • iasl

In Linux

You can use the software:

  • iasl



You can use another program to open the AML files. Double-click the file and click on ‘Open With". A series of other programs that can be sued to open it will appear on a drop-down menu. Some of the other files software to open the AML files are below:

  • Morpheus Photo Morpher Layout Project
  • AutoMage
  • Mio Technology Application Markup Language

You can download any of the files above from the developers' websites try using it to open the AML files.

There are some file extensions that you can use to open different types of files. You can easily open a file by first know the type of file it is. Many of the AML files available are System Files. You can open them using different kinds of software packages. If you have a program on your computer system capable of opening System Files, then it is possible to use that program to open AML files.

To know the type of file the AML file is:

  • First check the properties of the file.
  • Right-click on the icon.
  • Then selecting "More Info" or "Properties".

File type: Adaptive Multi-Rate Codec File


File Extension AMR

The Adaptive Multi-Rate Codec File identified by the AMC file extension is an audio (compressed) format developed by Sony Ericsson and is currently used by many third generation cellular phones for its voice recording functionalities which can be included in MMS messages. This audio format includes the ACELP (Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction) algorithm which was conceived to efficiently compress the audio generated by human speech.

The effectiveness of this format was recognized in October 1998 when it was adopted by the 3GPP as the standard codec for speech and has since become widely deployed in many UMTS and GSM based communication networks. This standard implements link adaptation for selecting any of the eight varying bit rates depending on the link conditions exhibited by each bit rate.

Due to the popularity gained by this audio codec format, various third party applications have been developed to convert the AMC file extension to other popular audio file variants like the MP3. It must be noted however, that this audio format was developed primarily to cater to human speech and may not be ideal for use with other audio types like music.


Open AMR File

Category: Audio Files
File format: Proprietary
Open with Windows: Apple QuickTime Player, RealNetworks RealPlayer, Mobile AMR Converter, AMR Tool
Open with Linux: N/A
The common bit rates hosted by the AMR file extension includes 4.75, 5.15, 5.90, 6.70, 7.40, 7.95, 10.2, and 12.2Kb per second. These are based on the use of frames containing 160 samples and last for 20 milliseconds. This audio format implements various techniques like DTX (Discontinuous Transmission), CNG (Comfort Noise Generation), and VAD (Voice Activity Detection among others.
This file format uses the subtype AMR-WB (Extended version of the Adaptive Multi-Rate for Wideband Speech Codec), AMR-W (AMR for Wideband Speech Codec), and AMR-WB+. The AMR file extension standard was incorporated into the CableLabs PacketCable specification in 2006 after it was accepted as a standard by the European telecommunication organization ETSI. To date, the audio file format is widely supported by the Open-Source community which attributes to the broad range of support available for the standard in the telecommunication industry.

.AAE file extension was developed by Apple and is very popular. It is categorized as a Data file and comes in the XML format.

Open AAE File

The file contains edit that is made to an image with Photos app and it is used on iOS devices.

The file extension is used for transferring non-destructive edits made by a user to .JPG images on an iOS device to the macOS system. You can find AAE files accompanying the images for which they contain edits.

As an Apple device end user, you might have come across the extension on your device, especially when going through your image folder. The extension is never available on windows device since Windows does not show it by default. If you want to transfer a photo with the .AAE file extension from an Apple device to a Windows device, the file will first be converted to a JPEG before being transferred.

It makes possible to keep the original photo image and any edit you might have made without overwriting it.

They are used by both iOS 8 and OS X 10.10; the former is the very first Apple device to use the file extension and the other ones came to the picture much later. If you are importing pictures to a Windows operating system from an iOS device, the JPG file will get transferred, but it will be left behind.

As a result, you will lose the edit. You can equally erase the .AAE files without deleting your pictures, but it will lead to the removal of any edit made to the pictures.

It is referenced by the Photo app anytime you are opening the JPG file associated with it. The data associated with it is saved in the form of XML and can be opened using a Notepad, TextEdit or any other text editor. In the next section of this write-up, we will look into various ways by which you can open it.

How to open .AAE extension

The method or tool you can use to open it depends a great deal on the operating system that you are using.

For those using Windows operating system, you can use programs like Microsoft Notepad to open it. You can also use virtually any other text editor. Many of them are available for use free of charge. They can be downloaded easily if you do not have them on your device already. Bear in mind that Notepad comes as a default addition to Microsoft devices.

For those using macOS, you can easily open the .AAE file by using tools like Apple Photos, Apple TextEdit or any other text editor that is compatible to Apple devices. Those using Linux Operating System can go for virtually any text editor to open it, like AbiWord, OpenOffice Writer, Boxer, Jarte, CodeLobster PPHP Edition, ConTEXT, WordPerfect and so on. Many of them are available for free download, but you will have to pay to access some other ones; the paid ones are WordPerfect, Boxer, EditPlus and even NoteTab.

File type: Visual Studio .NET Project


The ATP files extension defines project files made in Visual Studio .Net. The files with the .atp file extension belong to the development suite and is composed of source code information for Microsoft Application Center test (ACT).

The data in files with the .atp file extension can be used to compile a Windows workable program for ACT.

The information within a file with the .atp file extension contains a collection of declarations or statements written in a computer programming language. It is a human readable form used to convert into a computer-executable form. These files may be transformed to an executable file using a compiler or may be executed by an interpreter.


Detailed information 

Category: Source Code Files
File format: Proprietary
Open with Windows: Microsoft Visual Studio .NET
Open with Linux: N/A
The files with the .atp file extension are created using the Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Microsoft Visual Studio and are used in developing Graphical user interface and console applications.
These can be created along applications for Windows Forms, Web applications, Web services and websites in both managed code and native code for supported platforms by Microsoft Windows.
The files with the .atp are created by clicking the File menu in Visual Studio .NET, Menu and then Project. From the Other Projects folder, choose Application Center Test Projects and select ACT Project template.



File type: HitPlayer Audio Album


The audio album file generated by the HitPlayer application is represented by the ABM file extension. The audio data contained in this file format offers the user improved quality for sound reproduction which it achieves by combining two audio device sources by tapping on network resource feature sets.

The application supported by the file extension comes in two variants: the HitPlayer-L and the HitPlayer-B. HitPlayer-L is described as a digital based audio system that combines two separate standalone audio players using conventional IP network services for the delivery of superior audio solutions that cater to both automated and interactive audio programs.

This format file can support streaming, locally played back, and a combination of both for audio reproduction. The HitPlayer-B format is used for broadcast backup systems including mobile devices as well as programs that require rugged rack-mounted enclosures.


Detailed information 

Category: Audio Files
File format: Proprietary
Open with Windows: HitPlayer
Open with Linux: HitPlayer
The use of the ABM file extension supports the deployment of the audio system for transportation information, interactive audio systems, entertainment sound, public address, and background music.
The capability to use the IP2 Operating System does not only allow for remotely controlling various network connected devices and shared applications, it also provides the ABM file extension to be deployed as a cross-platform format.
The HitPlayer software is the initial catalog product to be produced by Digigram for the professional IP audio range and is used as the default application for every networked audio activities of the Aztec Radiomedia.

File type: FPK Archive


What is

The A file extension is closely identified with the 32- or 64-bit FPK Pascal (Free Pascal) compiler application. The software supports various types of processors like PowerPC, Intel x86, Sparc, AMD64/x86 64, and Motorola 680x0.

The compiler associated with the A format file can also be deployed in a wide array of computing platforms such as FreeBSD, Linux, SunOS (Solaris), NetBSD, DOS, Classic Amiga, BeOS, QNX, Mac OS Classic, Mac OS X/Darwin, MorphOS, and 32-bit Microsoft Windows Operating Systems.

This compiles supports the excellent language syntax compatibility with the Turbo Pascal 7.0 (TP 7.0) including the Delphi development language. This compatibility extends to interfaces, widestrings, ansistrings, exceptions, rtti, and classes.

For Apple users, the application incorporates the Mac Pascal compatibility mode which also has a built-in support for global properties, operator overloading, and function overloading among others.

The generation of the A file extension along with runtime libraries and packages of the compiler are covered by modified Library GNU Public License in order to make the use of static libraries in the creation of programs.


Detailed information 

Category: System Library Files
File format: Open-Source
Open with Windows: Free Pascal Compiler
Open with Linux: Free Pascal Compiler
The action of the compiler is usually controlled by two distinct methods, command line options and the use of the fpc.cfg configuration file.
Initially, the compiler attempts to check the contents of the configuration file and then verifies for command line options respectively.
By following this process, the possibility of setting basic options in the configuration file including defining specific options is made easier when dealing with some programs or units.
The ppumve program takes every unit file then modifies the contents prior to compilation to identify the unit code in the library.
The new unit files will take the PPU file extension which can be changed by using the -e command option. Static libraries take the
A file extension while shared libraries are assigned the SO file format under the Linux Operating System environment. For OS/2 and the Microsoft Windows NT platform, the DLL file extension is used.

File type: Audio Video Interleave


What is

The AVI file extension is used with Audio Video Interleave files. This commonly used wrapper format or video container was created by Microsoft to contain video data. Files with the .avi format are encoded in various codecs and usually use minimal compression than other similar formats like MOV or MPEG.

It can be opened by a variety of video players but it must able to support the codec used in encoding the video data.

The files with the .avi are in a container format for multimedia which was first introduced in November 1992 by Microsoft.

It was a part of their technology called Video for Windows.

It is used to store both video and audio in a file container that enables synchronous playback of audio and video. Similar to the DVD format, the files with the .avi format are able to support multiple streaming of video and audio.


Detailed information

Category: Video Files
File format: Proprietary
Open with Windows: NullSoft Winamp, VLC Media Player, Roxio Easy Media Creator, CyberLink PowerDirector, Micoasft Windows Media Player, Apple QuickTime Player, other movie players with the supporting codecs
Open with Linux: VLC Media Player, Xine Multimedia player
The format was derived from RIFF (Resource Interchange File Format) that divides file data into chunks.
By using the RIFF format, audio and visual data in the movie chunk is encoded or can be decoded by a codec.
The codec is then able to translate between raw data and the compressed format used within the chunk.
A file with the .avi file extension can carry audio and visual data in the chunk in any compressed form.

File type: ASP.NET Source


What is

The .aspx file extension is an ASP.NET Source File. It pertains to Web pages and source files created using the ASP.Net Framework application.

The said program is a component of the .Net technology of Microsoft and is employed in creating rich and dynamic content for Web pages that allow the execution of embedded scripts at a rate much faster than any other online server. Web pages with the .aspx could be opened or viewed using any Web browser operated by Mac or Microsoft systems.

This is because the execution of all the scripts in the .aspx Web page is made on the server. The browser is therefore enabled to display Web page as a plain HTML.


Detailed information 

Category: Web Files
File format: Proprietary
Open with Windows: Any Web browser
Open with Linux: Any Web browser
The ASP.Net has three kinds of server controls which help in the execution of the scripts in the source file .aspx. The first server control involves HTML Server Controls which refer to sets of traditional HTML tags.
These enable the ASP.Net to handle as its own the HTML tags. The second one includes Web Server Controls that are unique to the .aspx scripts and the third one involves the Validation Server Controls employed for validity input.



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